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23 Sylfaen Diweddaraf

The Kop … drwy lygaid Dde Affrica (GB)

Mae Guest Blog gwych gan Andrew Davidson …. yn Gefnogwr Lerpwl ac yn aelod o grŵp Fields Of Anfield Road Facebook. Andrew yn rhoi nodyn atgoffa o pam The Kop yn a bydd bob amser mor bwysig i gynifer o bobl o gwmpas y Byd a'i arwyddocâd hanesyddol ni. Diolch i chi am Andrew hon blog gwych …..

Bod yn Dde Affrica, bellach yn byw yn Cork Iwerddon, yn gefnogwr Lerpwl gydol oes ac yn falch o'r ddau, Yr wyf bob amser wedi caru Hanes. Although still awaiting my first visit to the hallowed ground of Anfield,(hoping to get over this next season), Rwy'n disgwyl i dagu i fyny ac i sied ychydig o ddagrau pan fyddaf yn cyrraedd yno.

Byddwn yn hoffi gallu wedi cymryd fy lle ar y Kop gwreiddiol, but unfortunately circumstances and the fact that I lived in South Africa up until four years ago, Rhowch delir i hynny.

Yr wyf wedi ymweld â'r Spioenkop gwreiddiol sawl gwaith, there is a grave of an unknown Boer soldier there, ac yr wyf yn ei wneuthur yn gefnogwr Lerpwl.

Ar 22 Ebrill 1989, wythnos ar ôl y trychineb Hillsborough, I stopped in at the Kop and laid a Liverpool scarf which was my pride and joy since I was six years old, i lawr ar y bedd ac yn cynnau cannwyll….that was my tribute to the 96 cyd-gefnogwyr sydd byth ddychwelodd adref.

I thought you might to hear a brief history of the Kop as seen through the eyes of a South African, proud iof his heritage and in love with his football team since around 1970.

Ffaith ddiddorol yw bod dau ffigurau hanesyddol adnabyddus iawn, Winston Churchill and Mohandas Ghandi also played parts in the battle of Spioenkop.

Roedd Brwydr Spion Kop ymladd am 38km (24fy) west-south-west of the town of Ladysmith on the hilltop of Spioenkop along the Tugela River, which flows through Natal which is now known as Kwa-Zulu Natal from 23–24 January 1900. It was fought between combined forces of the South African Republic and the Orange Free State on the one hand and the British forces on the other during the notorious second Boer War campaign to relieve Ladysmith. It was a comprehensive Boer victory.

General Redvers Buller,Roedd y rheolwr y lluoedd Prydeinig yn Natal, and was attempting to relieve a British force besieged in Ladysmith. The Boers under Gen Louis Botha held the important Tugela river which prevented
him from relieving the siege. Although Botha’s men were outnumbered, cawsant eu offer bennaf gyda
reifflau modern a hyd yn gyfredol gynnau cae, and had carefully entrenched their positions. In late December, 1899, Buller made a frontal assault on the Boer positions, Profodd hyn yn gostus ac roedd y canlyniad yn trechu Prydeinig trwm.

Spion Kop,Roedd y bryn mwyaf yn y rhanbarth, fod yn or 430 metres (1,410ft) o uchder. It lay almost exactly at the centre of the Boer line. If the British could capture this position and bring artillery to the hill then they would command the flanks of the surrounding Boer positions.

Fel y wawr dorri, ar ddiwrnod y frwydr,the British discovered that they held only the smaller and lower part of the hilltop of Spion Kop, while the Boers occupied higher ground on three sides of the British position. The British had no direct knowledge of the topography of the summit and the darkness and fog had compounded the problem.

Furthermore, the British trenches were inadequate for all defensive purposes. Because the summit of the kop was mostly hard rock, the trenches were at most 40 centimetres (16in) deep and provided an exceptionally poor
defensive position – the British infantry in the trenches could not see over the crest of the plateau and the Boers were able to fire down the length of the crescent-shaped trench from the adjacent peaks.

Dechreuodd y Boeriaid i bombard sefyllfa Brydeinig, dropping shells from the adjacent plateau of Tabanyama at a rate of ten rounds per minute. Meanwhile, Commandant Hendrik Prinsloo of the Carolina Commando captured Aloe Knoll and Conical Hill with some 88 dynion, tra gwmpas 300 burghers (cyfieithu fras ffermwyr neu ddinasyddion), mainly of the Pretoria Commando, climbed the kop to launch a frontal assault on the British position.

Prinsloo told his men that they were going in to attack the enemy and many of them wouldnt be coming back. Minutes later, hundreds of Boers swarmed in to attack the British positions at the Spion Kop crestline, much to the surprise of the British because it was very unusual for the Boers to launch a daytime massed attack that quickly resulted in vicious, close-quarters combat which was not a custom of the Boers’ arddull o ryfela.

Mae'r reifflau Prydeinig oedd unrhyw llai marwol na'r reifflau Boeriaid, however as both sides exchanged fire at close range, as well as engaged in hand-to-hand combat with the British wielding fixed bayonets and the Boers wielding hunting knives and their own rifles which they used as bludgeons. After suffering serious losses, yr ymosodiad Boer cario'r llinell grib
ar ôl sawl munud o frwydro yn erbyn chreulon llaw-i-law, but could advance no further. Morale began to sag on both sides as the extreme heat, exhaustion and thirst took hold.

A certain Winston Churchill was a journalist stationed in South Africa and he had also been commissioned as a lieutenant in the Light Horse Brigade by General Buller after his well-publicised escape from Boer captivity. Churchill acted as a courier to and from Spion Kop and Buller’s headquarters and made a statement about the scene: “Corpses lay here and
there. Many of the wounds were of a horrible nature. The splinters and fragments of the shells had torn and mutilated them. The shallow trenches were choked with dead and wounded” When morning came, the Boer generals were astonished to see two burghers on the top of Spion Kop, chwifio'u eistedd yn isel-hetiau mewn buddugoliaeth.

The only British on the kop were the dead and the dying. The British suffered 243 marwolaethau yn ystod y frwydr; many were buried in the trenches where they fell. Mae tua 1,250 British were either wounded or captured.

Mohandas Gandhi Roedd stretsier-dygiedydd ym mrwydr, in the Indian Medical Brigade which he had organised, ac wedi ei addurno. The Boers suffered 335 casualties of which 68 were dead, including Commandant Prinsloo’s commando casualties of 55 killed and wounded out of 88 dynion.

The British retreated back over the Tugela, but the Boers were too exhausted to pursue and follow up their success. Once across the river, Buller managed to rally his troops. Ladysmith would be relieveved in a few weeks. Although the common English name for the battle is “Spion Kop” throughout the British Commonwealth and its historical literature, the official South
African enw Saesneg ac Affricaneg ar gyfer y frwydr yn “Spioenkop” coming from Spioen meaning “spy or lookout”, a Kop ystyr “hill or outcropping”. Another variant that is sometimes found is the combination into “Spionkop”.

Many football grounds in England in the English Premier League and Football League have one terrace or stand in their stadia named “pen” neu “Spion Kop” because of the steep nature of the terracing, the most famous of course being that at Liverpool FC’s Anfield stadium, loved by Liverpool fans and feared by opposition.

Other notable Kop’s around the world include:

The village of Spion Kop near Mansfield, Nottinghamshire was named after
the battle.

A hill outside Rugeley, Staffordshire is called Spion Kop, in memory of the
frwydr.

A hill outside Llanwrtyd Wells, Powys is called Spion Kop, in memory of the
frwydr.

The 18th hole at The Otago Golf Club, which is also the oldest golf club in
the southern hemisphere, is called Spion Kop.

Daleview cottages, in the village of Ballybrack, in Co. Dublin, Ireland,
were known locally as “The Kop”. They were built around 1900 and are on a
steep hill.

Mae rhan uchaf o bentref Wivenhoe, Essex, Lloegr, cael ei adnabod fel Spion Kop,
o bosibl oherwydd bod cyn-filwyr y rhyfel y Boer unwaith yn byw ar y ffordd Manor.

Mae mynwent ar yr arfordir y tu allan i Hartlepool cael ei enwi Spion Kop ac mae'n ddyddiedig
1856

Mae rhes o fythynnod yn Belfield Rochdale yn cael eu henwi Spion Cop a dyddio 1900

2 bythynnod yn Watledge, Swydd Gaerloyw, yn cael eu henwi Spion Kop a dyddio
1901.

Y 13eg twll y Clwb Golff Launceston, Tasmania, gelwir Awstralia
Spion Kop.

Mae bryn yn Paracombe, De Awstralia a enwir Spionkop, tua
400 metr o uchder

A locality forming part of the town of Kurri Kurri NSW in Australia has the
name Spion Kop

A railway hill in the Melbourne yards is called Spion Kop.

The South African Navy frigate SAS Spioenkop is named after the battle.

The 5th hole at Craigie Hill Golf Club in Perth, Scotland is called Spion
pen.

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